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Community Assessment

By Douglas Stockman
ISBN: 9781853392245
The goal of this introductory text is to assist the reader in identifying causes of ill health in communities, so as to provide more effective and less costly health interventions. Topics explored include basic demographics, water and sanitation, food preparation and nutrition, community resources, and health and endemic diseases.

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  • Synopsis
    The goal of this introductory text is to assist the reader in identifying causes of ill health in communities, so as to provide more effective and less costly health interventions. Topics explored include basic demographics, water and sanitation, food preparation and nutrition, community resources, health and endemic diseases, and an introduction to the growing field of Rapid Epidemiological Assessment.
  • Table of Contents
    Preface vii
    Chapter 1 Introduction 1
    Chapter 2 First steps to community assessment 5
    The need for assessment 5
    Working with community leaders 7
    Where to start 8
    Observation methods 10
    Chapter 3 Basic demographics 13
    Population density 14
    Fertility rate and family composition 15
    Socioeconomic indicators 19
    Chapter 4 Water and sanitation 25
    Water quality 25
    Water quantity 27
    Human waste disposal 28
    Disease transmission by water contact 29
    Water-related diseases 30
    Chapter 5 Food - preparation and nutrition 35
    Maternal effects on child nutrition 35
    Child nutrition 37
    Food availability - family level 39
    The cooking facility and cooking methods 40
    Food selection 43
    Chapter 6 Food - agriculture 49
    Food source and food availability 49
    Factors limiting crop yield 51
    1. Seed variety 51
    2. Irrigation 52
    3. Fertilizer use 53
    4. Land management 57
    5. Harvesting and storage 58
    Chapter 7 Identification of community resources 63
    People
    Raw Materials
    Transportation
    Leaders
    Skilled workers
    Literate people
    Community members
    Traditional healers
    Building materials
    methods
    Cars and trucks
    Human-powered transportation
    Animal-powered transportation
    Water transportation
    Alternative energy sources
    1. Humans and animals
    2. Electricity and fossil fuels
    3. Natural energy sources
    Monetary and material resources
    Outside resources
    1. Money
    2. Personnel
    3. Books and educational materials
    Chapter 8 Health, health care and endemic diseases 79
    Health care availability 79
    1. Barriers to health care 81
    2. Health facility services 84
    3. Essential medicines 85
    4. Vertical programmes 87
    At-risk groups 88
    1. Women 88
    2. Children 91
    3. The elderly 100
    4. Other at-risk groups 101
    Common and endemic diseases 103
    1. Disease prevalence and identification 104
    2. Detection of onchocerciasis 107
    3. Nightblindness - a screening tool for
    xerophthalmia 109
    4. Haematuria and proteinuria as an indicator
    of schistosomiasis 110
    5. Estimating malaria prevalence 111
    Chapter 9 Rapid epidemiological assessment 123
    Cluster sampling 123
    Verbal autopsy 125
    Estimating maternal mortality by the sisterhood method 127
    Questionnaires aimed at key informants 130
    RE A summary 133
    Appendices
    1. International agricultural research centres 135
    2. REA equations 136
    3. Health survey guidelines 137
    4. Sources for published materials pertaining
    to international health 138
    Index 139
  • Details
    Sub Title N/A
    Author Douglas Stockman
    Editor No
    Number of Pages 160
    Format Paperback / softback
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