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Small-scale Milling

By Lars-Ove Jonsson
ISBN: 9781853392191
This book is essential reading for anyone involved in milling in developing countries, and the target reader is the extension agent promoting improved small-scale milling techniques. The book can be used both as a manual and course material for training at a number of levels.

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  • Synopsis
    Traditional milling is a time-consuming and laborious task for rural women, and there is a great need to mechanize this operation. However, traditional milling practices have many nutritional advantages for children and women which are not associated with the new milling techniques and instead of being an improvement there is a great risk that improved milling will be a threat to vulnerable groups. This book is essential reading for anyone involved in milling in developing countries, and the target reader is the extension agent promoting improved small-scale milling techniques. The book can be used both as a manual and course material for training at a number of levels.
  • Table of Contents
    FOREWORD xi
    PREFACE xiii
    1. INTRODUCTION 1
    Why Milling? 1
    Complexity of Choosing Appropriate Milling Techniques 1
    Need for a Manual in Small-scale Milling 2
    Approach 2
    The Target Reader 3
    The Content 3
    Definitions 3
    2. THE CEREAL GRAIN 4
    Anatomy of Cereal Grains 4
    Nutrients in Cereals 5
    Purpose of Milling 5
    Phytic Acid 7
    Soaking 7
    Malting 7
    Fermentation 8
    Parboiling 8
    Type of Flour 9
    Recommendations on Flour Quality 10
    3. ELEMENTS OF TECHNICAL CHOICE
    IN MILLING 12
    Case Study 1: TRADITIONAL MAIZE
    PROCESSING IN EASTERN PROVINCE
    OF ZAMBIA, AND MALAWI 12
    Background 14
    Traditional maize processing 14
    Comments 15
    Experience of sorghum and millet 15
    Case Study 2: MECHANIZED MILLING
    OF MAIZE IN EASTERN PROVINCE
    OF ZAMBIA, AND MALAWI 16
    Background 16
    Mechanized maize milling with hammermills 16
    Comments 16
    Experience of sorghum and millet 18
    Elements of technological choice in milling 19
    o Milling enterprises 19
    o Homestead milling 19
    o Customs milling 19
    o Large-scale commercial mills 20
    o Consumers' preference 20
    o Retail prices 20
    o Geographical distribution 21
    o Utilization efficiency 21
    o Composite milling 21
    4. PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS OF CEREALS,
    CASSAVA, LEGUMES AND CONDIMENTS 22
    Wheat 22
    o Grain structure and composition 22
    o Wheat milling 23
    o Small-scale milling opportunities 24
    Maize 24
    o Grain structure and composition 24
    o Milling considerations 24
    o Small-scale milling opportunities 24
    Rice 25
    o Grain structure and composition 25
    o Milling considerations 26
    o Small-scale milling opportunities 26
    Sorghum 27
    Grain structure and composition 27
    Small-scale milling opportunities 27
    Millet 29
    o Grain structure and composition 29
    o Milling considerations 30
    Barley and Oats 30
    Cassava 30
    o Structure and composition 30
    o Processing considerations 31
    Legumes 32
    o Structure and composition 32
    o Processing considerations 32
    Condiments 32
    o Roots 32
    o Seeds 32
    o Bark 32
    o Dried whole fruits 32
    o Dried bulbs 32
    o Dried leaves 33
    Salt 33
    Bone Meal 33
    VI
    5. MILLING PROCESSES 34
    Pre-treatments 34
    o Grain cleaning 34
    o Foreign material 34
    o Pesticide residues 35
    o Peeling and drying roots 35
    o Legume splitting 35
    o Moisture and drying 35
    o Cleaning 35
    Husk and Bran Removal 36
    o Manual husk and bran removal 36
    • Pestle and mortar 36
    • Dheki 36
    o Mechanized husk and bran removal 36
    • Abrasive disc dehuller 36
    • Steel huller 37
    • Centrifugal dehusker 38
    • Rubber roll dehusker 39
    • Under-run disc dehusker 40
    • Friction whitener 40
    • Cone whitener 42
    • Abrasive whitener 42
    Grinding 43
    o Manually operated grinders 43
    • Pestle and mortar 44
    • Saddlestone 44
    • Quern 44
    •Hand-operated rotary mill 44
    o Mechanized mills 45
    • Stone mills 46
    • Plate mills 47
    • Hammermills 48
    • Roller milling 51
    6. SOURCES OF POWER 52
    Human Power and Draught Power 52
    Diesel Engines 54
    o Old-fashioned diesel engines 55
    o The modern diesel engine 55
    o The hot-bulb engine technique 56
    Electric Motor 57
    Water-mills 57
    Wind Power 58
    Battery-powered Mills 58
    Steam Engines 60
    Coupling Arrangements 60
    o Direct drive 60
    o Flat belt drive 61
    o V-belt drive 61
    o Centrifugal clutch coupling 61
    o Multiple drives 62
    vii
    7. OPERATOR'S MANUAL FOR DIESELPOWERED
    HAMMERMILL 64
    Introduction (Case 3.1) 64
    The Hammermill Operation 64
    o Daily pre-operation tasks 64
    • Checking and filling of oil (Case 3.2) 65
    • Checking, filling and recording of fuel (Case 3.3) 66
    o Engine operation tasks
    • Starting and stopping of engine (Case 3.4) 66
    o Milling tasks 67
    • Milling and recording grain (Case 3.5) 67
    Post-operation tasks
    • Cleaning hammermill and shelter daily (Case 3.6) 68
    Hammermill Maintenance 69
    o Weekly maintenance tasks
    • Check and tighten selected bolts (Case 3.7) 69
    • Check and tighten beater bolts (Case 3.8) 69
    • Cleaning of air filter elements (Case 3.9) 70
    • Cleaning shelter and divider (Case 3.10) 71
    o Monthly maintenance tasks
    • Cleaning of cooling fins (Case 3.11) 71
    • Checking and adjusting V-belts (Case 3.12) 72
    o Maintenance tasks after 300hrs of operation
    • Greasing of mill bearings (Case 3.13) 73
    • Changing of oil and replacing oil filter (Case 3.14) 73
    • Changing of fuel filter element and cleaning of ceramic
    filter (Case 3.15) 74
    • Changing of air filter element (dry type) (Case 3.16) 74
    • Removing soot from exhaust silencer (Case 3.17) 75
    Hammermill Repairs
    o Removing and replacing of damaged screen (Case 3.18) 75
    o Turning or replacing beaters/hammers (Case 3.19) 76
    o Changing of damaged V-belts (Case 3.20) 76
    Major repairs
    o When and how to get outside repair service (Case 3.21) 77
    Management
    o Record keeping (Case 3.22) 77
    o Daily Repair Form (Case 3.23) 78
    o The Weekly Records Form (Case 3.24) 78
    8. INSTALLATION AND SAFETY OF MILLING 81
    Installation and Layout of Equipment 81
    o Basic requirements 81
    o Hand-operated mills 81
    o Animal-powered mills 81
    Vlll
    Motor-powered Mills 81
    o Diesel engine 81
    o Electric motor 83
    o Steam engine 83
    Water-powered Mills 83
    Wind-powered Mills 83
    Safety 83
    9. SUMMARY OF MILLING PROBLEMS 85
    10. SMALL-SCALE MILLING MACfflNERY 87
    11. MANAGEMENT 89
    Introduction 89
    How to Choose a Mill 89
    Comments 90
    Financial Costing 91
    o Pay-back method 91
    o Budgeting procedure 91
    Follow-up 93
    Case Study 4: MANAGEMENT 94
    o Daily Records Form 95
    o Weekly Records Form 96
    o Cash Book 97
    o Milling Project Description 98
    o Profitability Projection 101
    o Cash-flow Analysis 104
    APPENDIX 1: Glossary 106
    APPENDIX 2: Further Reading and Information 108
    References 108
    APPENDIX 3: List of Useful Contacts 110
    APPENDIX 4: Product Details 114
    Machinery Suppliers and Manufacturers 114
    Further List of Manufacturers and Suppliers 125
    APPENDIX 5: Sources of Illustrations 128
  • Details
    Sub Title N/A
    Author Lars-Ove Jonsson
    Editor No
    Number of Pages 144
    Format Paperback / softback
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