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Storm Drainage

By Pete Kolsky
ISBN: 9781853394324
This manual is written to help engineers, aid and agency workers understand drainage problems, so that they can work towards finding practical solutions. It focuses on: what is drainage performance? how can we evaluate a drainage system, to access how best to improve its performance? what are the effects of solids in drains upon performance?

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  • Synopsis
    Millions of slum residents across the world suffer the hazards and misery of frequent flooding of their streets and homes, which may result in savings of a lifetime being washed away in a few hours, damaged property, loss of work and time, and higher risks of diarrhoea, worm infection and other health problems. This manual is written to help engineers, aid and agency workers understand drainage problems more clearly in the developing world, so that they can work towards finding practical solutions. It focuses on three questions of particular relevance to low-income urban areas in developing countries: what is drainage performance? how can we evaluate a drainage system, to access how best to improve its performance? what are the effects of solids in drains upon performance? This manual is the outcome of two-and-a-half years of fieldwork in the city of Indore, in Madhya Pradesh, India and can be used as a practical aid by municipal engineers, consulting engineers and engineering instructors and students, as well as development and aid workers involved in drainage systems.
  • Table of Contents
    Acknowledgements ix
    1 Introduction 1
    Drainage and surface water drainage 1
    Surface water drainage and public health 1
    The purpose of the manual 2
    Who this manual is for 3
    The structure of the manual 3
    Origins of the manual 3
    2 Drainage systems, flooding, and performance 5
    Wet weather processes: what happens when it rains? 5
    Rainfall becomes runoff 5
    Runoff transports solids 9
    Runoff enters the drain 10
    Runoff flows through the drain 10
    Flooding takes place 11
    Flood waters are contaminated 12
    Dry weather processes: solids deposition and drain maintenance 12
    Solids deposition 12
    Drain cleaning 15
    Community perceptions of flooding 16
    Priority 16
    Predictability 16
    Expectations 17
    Drainage performance and evaluation 17
    3 Factors that affect performance 19
    Types of drainage system 19
    Major and minor drainage 19
    Types of minor drainage systems 19
    Hydraulic capacity 21
    Frequency of flooding 21
    Depth of flooding 25
    Area of flooding 25
    Duration of flooding 28
    Street grading 28
    Inlets 29
    Catchment surface and storage 30
    Effect on runoff volume 30
    Effect on timing of flow 31
    Annexe 3-A: Derivation of frequency and capacity relationships 33
    Annexe 3-B: Performance aspects of inlets 35
    4 Drainage evaluation: general approaches 38
    System-wide evaluation 38
    Gather background data 40
    Perform field work 41
    Analyse the data 42
    Write up the findings 44
    Evaluating a specific catchment 45
    Gather background data 45
    Perform field work 46
    Analyse the data 46
    Write up the findings 47
    5 Studying the catchment 48
    Topographic survey 48
    Level of accuracy 48
    Data to collect 49
    Analysis 49
    Defining a catchment 51
    Surface cover survey 52
    6 Assessing flooding as a problem 54
    Resident surveys 54
    Avoid 'leading' questions 55
    Ask more than one person 56
    Try to be specific 56
    Retrospective flood surveys in Indore 57
    Direct observation 57
    Resident gauges 59
    Chalk gauges 59
    Electronic level gauging 62
    Summary 63
    7 Flow estimation 65
    Catchment area and cover type 65
    Rainfall intensity 66
    Using IDF curves to estimate flows 67
    Limitations of IDF curves and simplified methods 69
    Annexe 7-A: How to develop IDF curves 71
    Developing curves from continuous data 71
    Developing curves from limited data 72
    vi
    8 Assessing drainage capacity 81
    Concepts of capacity 81
    Three types of capacity estimation 82
    Examples of the three levels of analysis 84
    Design capacity 84
    As-built capacity 85
    Actual capacity 85
    Drainage network surveys 86
    Level of network analysis 87
    Annexe 8-A: Using software for drainage analysis and design 88
    Introduction 88
    Classification and characteristics of software 89
    Choosing between packages 92
    Why invest in a software package? 93
    What are the pitfalls to avoid? 93
    9 Drainage network structural survey 94
    Conduit measurements 94
    Dimensions 94
    Levels 95
    Condition of conduits 100
    Open conduits 100
    Closed conduits 100
    Condition of inlets 105
    10 Maintenance surveys 106
    Drain solids surveys 106
    Visual observation 106
    Solids levels 106
    Solids build-up surveys 107
    Solids sampling and size distribution 110
    Inlet solids surveys 112
    Blockage of inlet mouths 112
    Solids levels 113
    Drain cleaning observation 113
    Removing solids from the drain 115
    From the drain to safe disposal 115
    Solid waste monitoring 116
    11 Studying drainage systems in action 118
    What to look for in wet weather 119
    Catchment and subcatchment boundaries 119
    The nature of flooding in flood-prone areas 119
    The hydraulic performance of the total drainage system 119
    The surface flow routes followed by runoff during floods 120
    The nuisance, hazard, and damage of flooding 120
    How to manage wet weather tasks 120
    Organizing a team 120
    Organizing specific tasks 121
    Summary 125
    12 Summary and conclusions 126
    Themes of preceding chapters 126
    Why flooding matters 126
    Performance 126
    Factors that affect performance 126
    General approaches to drainage evaluation 127
    Studying the catchment 128
    Assessing flooding as a problem 128
    Estimating flows from runoff 128
    Assessing drainage capacity 129
    Drainage network structural survey 129
    Maintenance survey 129
    Studying drainage systems in action 129
    Final conclusions 130
    Implications for improving system performance 130
    Implications for improving drainage design 130
    13 References 132
  • Details
    Sub Title N/A
    Author Pete Kolsky
    Editor No
    Number of Pages 144
    Format Paperback / softback
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