CUSTOMER SERVICE

01926 634501

Sustainable Sewerage

By R.A. Reed
ISBN: 9781853393051
This book describes how conventional sewerage schemes can be modified to reduce the cost of construction and maintenance and suggests methods of prioritizing sewerage needs; surveys planning, selection, design, management and maintenance of schemes as well as providing financial and technical guidance on cost-effective practice and procedures.
£12.95

Sustainable Sewerage View Jacket

  • Synopsis
    This handbook describes how conventional sewerage schemes can be modified to reduce the cost of construction and maintenance and suggests methods of prioritizing sewerage needs. Also surveys planning, selection, design, management and maintenance of community schemes as well as providing financial and technical guidance on cost-effective practice and procedures.
  • Table of Contents
    TABLES viii
    FIGURES ix
    PHOTOGRAPHS ix
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xi
    INTRODUCTION xiii
    1 Background 1
    1.1 Reasons for failure of on-site sanitation 3
    Insufficient plot area 3
    Ground infiltration failure 4
    Groundwater pollution 4
    Surface water pollution 6
    1.2 Investing in sustainable sewerage 7
    2 Prioritizing communities' need for sewerage 9
    2.1 Need and viability assessment 9
    Projected total population 10
    Population density 10
    Failure of on-site sanitation systems 10
    Industrial pollution 11
    Cost 11
    Tourist impact 11
    Environmental impact 12
    Affordability 12
    Economy of scale 12
    Institutional capacity 13
    Health benefits 13
    2.2 Numerical analysis of need and viability criteria 13
    Scoring for individual criteria 15
    Weighting 15
    Scoring and sensitivity analysis 17
    3 Designing conventional sewer networks 19
    3.1 Types of sewerage systems 20
    Separate systems 20
    Combined systems 20
    3.2 The movement of solids in pipes 21
    Flow regimes 21
    Solids transport in the upper reaches 22
    Solids transport lower down the system 22
    3.3 Pipe size 22
    Branch drains 22
    House sewers and the upper reaches of public networks 22
    Public sewers in the lower reaches of the network 23
    3.4 Pipe gradient 23
    3.5 Change point for sewer design 24
    Property drainage 24
    Communal sewer design 25
    Determining when a pipe is 'running full' 26
    3.6 Sewer layout 26
    3.7 Design procedure 26
    Minimizing capital costs 29
    4.1 Sewerage components 29
    Sanitary fixtures 29
    Pipe materials 30
    Grease traps 30
    Interceptor tanks 33
    Small interceptor tanks 33
    Large interceptor tanks 33
    Access points 34
    4.2 Sewerage design for low-cost systems 37
    By-laws and codes of practice 37
    Wastewater flow 37
    Pipe diameters 38
    Sewer slope 38
    Minimum pipe depth 42
    Number of connections before a sewer pipe runs full 42
    Sewer layout 46
    Pumping stations and trunk mains 48
    Sewage treatment 48
    4.3 Construction project initiation 50
    Government agencies 50
    External organizations 50
    Recipient communities 51
    4.4 Construction management 52
    Contracts and contractors 52
    Construction supervision 53
    Community mobilization 53
    5 Maximizing uptake of sewerage facilities 54
    5.1 Reducing connection costs 54
    Physical measures 54
    Providing subsidies 54
    5.2 Increasing demand for sewerage 55
    Meetings 55
    Models 57
    General publicity 57
    Emphasizing positive impacts 57
    Confronting negative issues 58
    Offering user choice 58
    Linkage with other projects 59
    Choosing a name for a community project 59
    Campaign implementation 59
    5.3 Legal issues 59
    Enforcement of connections 59
    Clarifying responsibility for connections 60
    Connections to rented accommodation 60
    6 Achieving sustainable maintenance 61
    6.1 Responsibility for operation and maintenance 61
    Property owners 61
    Institutions 61
    Community groups 62
    The private sector 62
    6.2 Supervision of operation and maintenance 62
    6.3 Minimizing maintenance: social issues 65
    Refuse collection and disposal 66
    Anal cleaning practices 66
    Utensil washing practices 66
    User abuse 66
    6.4 Minimizing maintenance: system design 67
    Surface water drainage 67
    Topography 67
    Water supply 67
    Access points 67
    Trunk sewers and pumping stations 68
    Sewage treatment 68
    Interceptor tanks 68
    6.5 Construction quality 69
    Supervision 69
    Construction components 69
    On-plot construction 69
    7 Optimizing the return on investment in sewerage 71
    7.1 Tariffs 71
    7.2 Direct repayment of capital costs 72
    7.3 Minimizing tariffs and maximizing returns 73
    8 Non-conventional sewerage systems 75
    8.1 Simplified sewerage 75
    8.2 Condominial sewerage 76
    8.3 Interceptor tank systems 78
    Appendix 1 Glossary of terms 85
    Appendix 2 The design of interceptor tanks 88
    REFERENCES 93
    FURTHER READING 94
    INDEX 96
  • Details
    Sub Title N/A
    Author R.A. Reed
    Editor No
    Number of Pages 112
    Format Paperback / softback
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