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The Charcoal Dilemma

By F Rosillo-Calle
ISBN: 9781853393228
There are important lessons to be learned from this Brazilian experience, from forest management to industrial production and use of charcoal. Brazil's experience is of interest to many other charcoal-producing countries, particularly as an example of natural resource and management use, with its many socio-economic and environmental ramifications.

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  • Synopsis
    This book examines the history of charcoal production and its chief industrial applications - pig-iron and steel making. It argues for the need for economic and environmental sustainability as the means to ensure the future of the industry. Brazil faces serious socio-economic, environmental and financial pressures to change and innovate - a painful adjustment to falling demand, overcapacity, greater competition with coke, and stricter environmental control. There are important lessons to be learned from this Brazilian experience, from forest management to industrial production and use of charcoal. Brazil's experience is of interest to many other charcoal-producing countries, particularly as an example of natural resource and management use, given its many socio-economic and environmental ramifications.
  • Table of Contents
    Acknowledgement viii
    Introduction xi
    1. Brief History of Charcoal 1
    1.1 General background 1
    1.2 Charcoal in Brazil 2
    2. The Charcoal-based Industrial Sector 6
    2.1 Main features of the iron and steel industry 6
    2.2 Overall charcoal consumption in the pig-iron and other
    industrial sectors 8
    3. Raw Material for Charcoal Production: From Native Forests
    to Forest Plantations 10
    3.1 History of forest plantations 10
    3.2 Silvicultural aspects 13
    3.3 Eucalyptus varieties and wood densities 14
    3.4 Seedling generation and planting methods 15
    3.5 Tree spacing and cutting age 15
    3.6 Biodiversity preservation and insect control 16
    3.7 Yields 17
    3.8 Afforestation programmes for charcoal production in Minas
    Gerais 18
    3.9 Socio-economic factors 20
    3.10 Legal aspects of afforestation 21
    4. Technical Aspects of Charcoal Production 22
    4.1 Fundamentals 22
    4.2 Charcoal-making technology 23
    4.3 Masonry kilns in commercial charcoal production 24
    4.4 Material balance and charcoal yield 27
    4.5 Charcoal versus coke 29
    5. Charcoal Production Costs 31
    6. The Future Challenge: The Need for Sustainable and Rational
    Use of Native Forests 35
    6.1 Carajas 35
    6.2 The sustainable forest management concept 37
    6.3 Sustainable Forest Management Project of 'Fazenda'
    Descoberta 39
    7. Environmental Factors in Charcoal Production and Use 44
    7.1 General aspects 44
    7.2 Coke versus charcoal 44
    7.3 The CO2 factor 47
    8. General Perspectives 48
    8.1 General considerations 48
    8.2 Research and development needs 50
    8.2.1 Forestry 51
    8.2.2 Charcoal production 51
    8.3 By-products recovery 52
    9. Summary and Conclusions 56
    9.1 Charcoal production 56
    9.2 Charcoal costs 57
    9.3 Sustainable Forestry Management Projects (SFMPs) 58
    9.4 Environment 58
    10. References 61
  • Details
    Sub Title N/A
    Author F Rosillo-Calle
    Editor No
    Number of Pages 96
    Format Paperback / softback
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