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The Future of Community Lands

By Emmanuel Ndione
ISBN: 9781853392481
This book describes the approaches and experiences of rural development workers in Senegal working with small-scale farmers. Its aim is to highlight successful methodological approaches adopted by this group in their attempt to help farmers revitalize the local environment in community lands, while building on the farmers' own experiences.
£22.95

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  • Synopsis
    This book describes the approaches and experiences of rural development workers in Senegal working with small-scale farmers. Its aim is to highlight successful methodological approaches adopted by this group in their attempt to help farmers revitalize the local environment in community lands, while building on the farmers' own experiences. It thus describes a facilitating approach. It is additionally interesting to anglophone readers because the book comes out of the experiences of development workers in francophone West Africa, and thus offers a fresh perspective on the common concerns of development workers worldwide.
  • Table of Contents
    Introduction xiii
    Part I The deep roots of community lands 1
    1 The community land in the words of the people 3
    The political history of Fandene 6
    The changing landscape 11
    The religious history of Fandene 14
    The spread of Christianity 16
    Changing farming practices: the men and women tell
    their stories 18
    Outside intervention 27
    Conclusion: our community land is highly complex 31
    2 A complex identity 33
    Historical identity 34
    Cultural identity 36
    Organizational identity 37
    Strategies and changes 38
    Landmark conclusions 38
    Part II The failure of projects to take root 41
    3 From a sectoral to a global approach 43
    A brief history of development projects in West Africa 43
    New approaches to reafforestation in West Africa 47
    Trees and forests, symbols of colonial rule 47
    Trees come to the villages 49
    From copse to fields, from fields to community land 49
    Towards local, global and social issues 52
    Landmark conclusions 55
    4 Project type and the role of the local people 57
    Promotion projects 57
    Support projects 58
    Consultative structures 60
    Models and reality 60
    Project type and personal profiles 64
    Where are we going? 65
    Landmark conclusions 66
    5 Techniques and local participation 68
    Trends 68
    Reafforestation and differences of perception 74
    The differing perceptions of community land 85
    Nobody's technical choices are neutral 89
    Landmark conclusions 90
    6 Power issues 92
    Analysis of the forces involved in a project 92
    Project financing and participation 99
    The price to be paid for participation: local control of
    environmental resources 103
    Landmark conclusions 105
    Part III Interaction 107
    7 Sob: a tale of interaction 109
    From Dakar to Sob 109
    Two villages and some hamlets 110
    Arable farming and livestock rearing 111
    Whose project: the young people's or the village's? 112
    The village takes control 113
    Sectoral activities 114
    Two groups in opposition 114
    Necessity of an urban setting 115
    Who has responsibility for health care in the village? 117
    The connection between plants and their environment 117
    The village's natural resources under threat 117
    From sectoral to global 118
    Looking at practical problems in the field 118
    The workshop: a springboard towards more global
    thinking 119
    Getting the guests to talk and share their points of view 120
    Global problems and how they are linked 121
    A new impetus 121
    Village involvement and consensus-building 122
    Conflicts over land distribution 123
    The technical officer's logic vs. the farmer's logic 125
    A system of credit grows out of the grain bank 126
    Women and the grain markets 127
    Is transparency always desirable? 128
    Formal criteria or unwritten rules? 130
    Discovering indigenous knowledge 130
    8 Beyond building a dam 133
    The dynamism of the smaller villages 134
    The village's negotiating and organizational skills 134
    An experience which shaped Enda's thinking 136
    Market gardening in the wadi 137
    Two sites, two dams 139
    'The land belongs to everyone' 'How can we be sure of that?' 140
    Following the footsteps of KMF 141
    North/South collaboration, or learning to work together 142
    Traditional organization vs. business logic 142
    Words of reassurance 145
    Alarming divergences 146
    A complex social landscape 149
    Dispelling doubts 150
    Settling scores 151
    Strategies determined by status within the group 152
    Local social rules 153
    Rescheduling and calling in the authorities 154
    Learning more about the actors' unspoken thoughts 156
    Starting again 157
    It looked promising . . . 160
    . . . and yet nothing changed 160
    Hidden costs 161
    The authorities take a stance 162
    Legal solutions are not always effective 163
    Back to square one 164
    Warnings and threats 165
    Negotiation and forecasting 166
    The diversity of interest groups 169
    New communications for a new structure 173
    Looking at things from a different perspective 173
    The 'fruits' of the cassava 174
    Initiatives and self-reliance 174
    Village programmes and village funds 176
    9 The actors 178
    Projects are about interaction 178
    The project produces and divides the actors 178
    Three processes by which projects produce actors 180
    Versatile actors and shifting social divisions 182
    Landmark conclusions 183
    10 Relational frameworks 185
    Relational networks as a strategic resource 185
    The positioning of external actors 187
    Relational networks and the actors' room for manoeuvre 188
    Relational networks and communication 189
    Landmark conclusions 189
    11 Interaction . 191
    Confrontation of world-views 191
    Value systems and systems of reference 192
    The internal world of the Support Organization 193
    Who am I? What am I doing here? The anxiety of the
    fieldworker 198
    The interplay of supply and demand 199
    The villagers' myths about NGOs 200
    Landmark conclusions 201
    12 Learning processes 203
    Learning on all fronts and letting go of certainties 203
    Failure, unforeseen events and confrontation: the ingredients
    of the learning process 207
    Seizing learning opportunities 209
    Landmark conclusions 210
    13 Creative uncertainties 212
    Complication, diversification 213
    Managing uncertainty — reverse planning 216
    Landmark conclusions 216
    14 Research-Action-Learning 218
    The project as a research process 218
    Pointers for managing interaction 225
    15 Conclusion 232
  • Details
    Sub Title No
    Author Emmanuel Ndione
    Editor No
    Number of Pages 256
    Format Paperback / softback
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