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Low-Cost Sanitation

By John Pickford
ISBN: 9781853392337
About two billion people in the world have no adequate sanitation provision. This book is a guide to what has been learned about providing sanitation coverage for both rural and urban low-income communities, and outlines what is appropriate, practical and acceptable.
£17.95

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  • Synopsis
    About two billion people in the world have no adequate sanitation provision. This book is a guide to what has been learned about providing sanitation coverage for both rural and urban low-income communities, and outlines what is appropriate, practical and acceptable.
  • Table of Contents
    .
    SANITATION IN
    PERSPECTIVE
    Why another book?
    Sources of experience
    What is sanitation?
    Sanitation coverage
    Some local coverage data
    Unreliability of statistics
    Sanitation in cities
    What is appropriate sanitation?
    Improving health
    Privacy and convenience
    Availability of resources
    Criteria for satisfactory sanitation
    The environment
    People and communities
    Management of sanitation
    SANITATION AND HEALTH
    Disease and death in developing
    countries
    Transmission of disease
    Waterbome diseases
    Other transmission routes
    Problems with wastewater
    Survival of pathogens
    Use of treated wastewater
    Diarrhoea and worms
    Evidence of health benefits
    Cost of disease
    Reduced mortality and illness
    Reduced incidence of worm diseases
    Reduced diarrhoea
    Mistaken ideas and good understanding
    SANITATION ALTERNATIVES
    Technology and software
    In the open
    Why people like the open air
    Disadvantages of open defecation
    Wrap and carry
    Use of latrines
    Women's use of latrines
    Children's use of latrines
    Men and latrines
    Shelter and location
    Privacy and protection
    Doors for shelters
    Prestige and status
    Separate latrines for men and women
    Comfortable latrines
    Where to put the latrine
    Location for Muslims
    Congested sites
    Sanitation alternatives
    Cultural variations and preferences
    Children's latrines
    Satisfaction with latrines
    Finding out what people want
    Classification of methods
    PARTB
    APPROPRIATE
    SANITATION SYSTEMS
    PIT LATRINES
    The pit and its size
    Types of pit latrine
    The popularity of pit latrines
    Crude pits
    Satisfactory simple pit latrines
    Pit size and 'life'
    Methods of anal cleaning
    Rate of solids accumulation
    Shallow pits
    Large pits
    Size for liquid infiltration
    Control of flies, mosquitoes
    and smell
    Fits with lids
    Ventilated pits
    Permanent VIPs
    Vent pipes
    Watergate bowls
    Water-seal latrines
    The water seal
    Alternative pour-flush latrines
    Full pits and twin pits
    Manual emptying of pits
    Mechanical emptying of pits
    Alternating pits
    Double pits
    Experience of twin and double pits
    Slabs and linings
    Slabs
    Ferrocement slabs
    Domed slabs
    Removable slabs
    Squat holes, footrests and seats
    Pit linings
    Pits without linings
    Other pit latrines
    Borehole latrines
    Raised pits
    Pits over swamps
    EXCRETA AS A RESOURCE
    The value of excreta
    The value of urine
    Compost latrines
    Continuous compost latrines
    Double vault compost latrines
    Aquaculture
    Biogas
    Food for animals
    REMOVAL SYSTEMS, SEPTIC
    TANKS AND AQUA PRIVIES
    Container systems
    Chemical toilets (or chemical closets)
    Vaults
    Vault and tanker system
    Cesspits
    Overhung latrines
    Conventional sewerage
    Advantages of sewerage
    Disadvantages of conventional sewerage
    Some difficulties with sewerage for lowincome
    communities in developing
    countries
    Non-conventional sewerage (NCS)
    or reduced cost sewerage
    Experience of NCS systems
    Vacuum systems
    Conventional septic tanks
    Advantages of septic tanks
    Disadvantages of septic tanks
    Design size of septic tanks
    Desludging
    Small and extended septic tanks
    Aqua privies
    TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
    OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
    Disposal of liquids
    Groundwater pollution
    The two metre rule
    Sand envelopes
    Shallow groundwater
    Chemical pollution
    Rise of groundwater
    Disposal of liquids to surface waters
    Disposal of effluent from septic tanks
    and aqua privies
    Mound soakaways
    Sewage treatment and disposal
    Irrigation with wastewater 93
    Wastewater treatment 94
    Conventional sewage treatment 95
    Waste stabilization ponds 96
    Irrigation with treated wastewater 96
    c. The problem of solids disposal 97
    d. Treatment and disposal of solids 98
    Methods of dealing with septage,
    nightsoil and the contents of vaults
    and pit latrines 99
    PARTC
    GETTING APPROPRIATE
    SANITATION
    8 INDIVIDUAL EFFORTS 101
    a. Paying for latrines and willingness to
    pay
    Paying h ighly for san itation 101
    b. Costs (construction, operation and
    maintenance) 103
    Overall costs 103
    Cost of sanitation alternatives 105
    Total annual cost per household 106
    c. Operation and maintenance 107
    Sullage in pits 108
    Hygiene education 109
    Controlling nuisance 109
    Dealing with pits 110
    Water seals and sewer connections 112
    9 COMMUNITY EFFORTS 113
    a. Community management, motivation
    and mobilization
    Communities and participation 113
    Communities working together 113
    Promotion and motivation 114
    Community committees 116
    Demonstration latrines 116
    Appropriate technology for community
    participation 117
    Affordable participation 118
    Delays with participation 118
    Communities and professionals 118
    b. Help from agencies 119
    Help with software 119
    Paying all the cost 120
    Subsidies 120
    Governments 121
    Donors 122
    NGOs and the private sector 122
    c. Regulations, control, planning 124
    Inappropriate regulations 124
    Responsible authorities 124
    Master plans 125
    d. Public and communal latrines 125
    Unsatisfactory public latrines 127
    Popular public latrines 128
    Operation by contractors 130
    e. School latrines 131
    10 SELECTION, EVALUATION
    AND UPGRADING 133
    a. Guides for selection
    b. Information for selection
    c. Evaluation
    d. Upgrading
    Upgrading pit latrines
    ANNEXES
    I Statistics for low income countries
    II Glossary
    HI Gazetteer - an index of places
    IV References
    V Index
  • Details
    Sub Title N/A
    Author John Pickford
    Editor No
    Number of Pages 176
    Format Paperback / softback
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